Glossary of Terms M to Z

 
MAGISTER EQVITVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 43
master of horse

MAGISTER EQVITVM ET PEDITVM PRAESENTALIS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 43
Master of soldiers and horse who remained close to the emperor

MAGISTER MILITVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 43
master of soldiers, master-general

MAGISTER MILITVM PER ORIENTALIS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 43
Master general of the Roman Orient

MAGISTER OFFICIORVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
(master of offices) also master of ceremonies

MAGISTER OFFICIORVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
master of offices

MAGISTER PEDITVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 43
master of infantry

Magistrates
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 30
Latin word meaning government officials

MAGISTRI MILITVM IN PRAESENTI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 36
masters of soldiers who remained in attendance upon the emperor

MAGISTRI MILITVM PEDITVM EQVITVM
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 418
masters of soldiers, cavalry, infantry. Masters-general of wide regions of the Empire.
Powerful military officers

MANDYES
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 28
purple robe of the later (civilian) praetorian prefects after Diocletion's reform

MANIPLE
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
The maniple was a small company of Roman troops consisting of 60 men at first but it
was later made up of two centuries, or 120 to 160 men.

MEMORIAE
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
a class of imperial secretary

MILES
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 9
Ordinary soldier

MILES GREGARIVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 77
Described in text

Military hospital
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 63
A military hospital at an army camp at Carnuntum (CARNVNTVM) is described

MILITIA EQVESTRIS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 70
Three officer posts in the army which comprise the beginning of an equestrian officer's
career (Augustus)

Mutiny
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 75
Tacitus, writing about the mutinous climate in some of the legions at the time of Tiberius'
accession, puts words into the mouths of some soldiers Why do we go on obeying a
handful of centurions ... body and soul bought for ten coppers a day ...

MVNICIPIVM
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 21
Roman provincial town with rights to govern itself and citizenship granted to all free
residents (VERVLAMIVM, St. Albans, was only example in Roman Britain.

NOTITIA DIGNITATVM
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 408
register of Roman civil and military offices and their spheres of competence

NOTITIA DIGNITATVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 26
Late Roman civil service register. There is an explanational footnote on P. 26 of Bury.

NOTITIA IN PARTIBVS OCCIDENTIS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 26
half of the Notitia Dignitatvm pertaining to the Western half of the empire

NOTITIA IN PARTIBVS ORIENTIS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 26
half of the Notitia Dignitatvm pertaining to the Eastern half of the empire

NVMERI
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
irregular cavalry units

NVMERI
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 298
irregular cavalry units

OFFICIA
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37

OFFICIALES
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
civil servants

OFFICINAE
ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX
p. XXXV
workshops (ex. in the mints)

OFFICIVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37

OFFICIVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
the body of civil servants that constituted the staff of a minister or governor
oikoumene
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
28

OPPIDVM
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 127
fortified city

Oppressive Byzantine government
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 32
Discussed in text passage

OPTIO
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 9
A centurion's deputy

OPTIO
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
Described in text, roughly equivalent rank to sergeant

OPTIO
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 14
Junior officer under the centurion

OPTIO EQVITVM
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Officers in charge of turnae

ORBIS ROMANVS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 28
Latin term meaning The Roman World

PALATINI
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 43
crack units of the comitatensis who replaced the praetorian guard. They were contolled by the magister officiorvm

PALATINI
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
palace troops

PARMA
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 15
Small, round buckler

PARMAE
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
small. round shields

PEDITES
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 9
Foot Soldiers, Infantry

PETILLIVS CERIALVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 69
Commander of ninth legion (LEG IX) which was mauled by Boudicca (Boadicea)

Phalanx, Phalanges
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
Square formation of troops; originated with the ancient Greeks

Phalanx
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10, 19
Square formation of troops; originated with the ancient Greeks

PHALERAE
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 295
orders or medals

PILVM
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
Camillus supposedly introduced the pilum, a short, well - balanced throwing spear

PILVM
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 15
The pilum was a Roman throwing spear with 4 1/2 foot haft and an iron head of about the
same length. The iron shank of the head was driven up into the haft about 1/2 its length.

POSSESSORES
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 47
Large landowners, proprietors of the latifundia or huge estates

PRAEFECTI
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 23
Magistrate or officer in command of allied units (SOCII)

PRAEFECTVS AVGVSTALIS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 27
Govenor of the Diocese of Aegyptvs (Egypt)

PRAEFECTVS CASTRORVM
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 69
Camp Commandant

PRAEFECTVS VIGILVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
officer in charge of city police

PRAEFECTVS VRBIS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 28
Prefect of the City

PRAEPOSITVS SACRI CVBICVLI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 33
Approximately translated, Lord Chamberlain. He was almost always a eunuch who was very powerful and close to the emperor.

PRAEPOSITVS SACRI CVBICVLI
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
Grand chamberlain

PRAETOR
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 68ff
Discussed in chapter

Praetorian prefecture
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 36
retained both civil & military authority under Diocletian

prefecture
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 35
The largest administrative unit of territory in the late Roman Empire. The prefecture
contained several provinces and dioces.

PRIMICERIUS
Gibbon V.II
p.226
Office of Principal Secretary. Gibbon states that this was the office held by Johannes at
the time of his usurpation.

PRIMICERIVS NOTARIORVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 26
This official prepared the CODICILII or diplomas of office for all appointees from
praetorian prefects down to provincial governors.

PRIMVS PATER PARES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 431
first Roman citizen

PRIMVS PILVS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 73
The primus pilus was the head centurion, sometimes in command of a cohort

PRINCEPS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 31
a civil service head of staff (as opposed to an imperial title)

PRINCIPALIS
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 9
A Praetorian Guardsman with several years' service who draws double pay

PRINCIPES
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10
Prime troops in Roman Republican armies. They were in the front line of battle.

PROBATVS
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 9

Probationary Praetorian Guardsman candidate
Proconsul
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 68ff
Discussed in chapter

Procurator
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 68ff
Discussed in chapter

Proskynesis
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 31
The act of assuming a totally prostrate (lying down) position before the emperor

PROTECTORES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p.
select young officers assigned for training to the imperial court in order to become

DOMESTICI
Provinces (Later arrangement under Diocletian and later)
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 35

PVLVERATICVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 39
Literally translated, dust money. It was a sum given to a man by his recruiting officer for travelling expenses to join his legion

QUAESTOR
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 68ff
Discussed in chapter

RES PRIVATAE
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
Imperial privy purse. The Res Privatae was the personal property of the emperor and consisted of his wealth, lands, etc. Sometimes, government expenses were paid out of the Res Privatae but this was usually taken care of by the SACRARVM LARGITONVM (Sacred largesse) which roughly corresponded to our modern concept of national budget.

RIPARIENSES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
Border troops. The Latin root of this word meant river, since many borders of the Roman Empire fell along rivers such as the Danube and the Rhine.

Roman Army Organization, 350 B. C.
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 13 - 14
Each legion has 4200 - 6000 men, 10 maniples each of HASTATI, PRINCIPES, & TRIARII
plus lightly armed VELITES. Each MANIPLE has 120 - 160 troops or 2 CENTURIES. 2

CENTURIONS & 2 OPTIONES per century,
Roman Dagger
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 23
Picture of Roman leaf - form dagger is shown in plate in this book.

SACRA VESTIS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
Imperial private chamber

SACRAMENTVM
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 25
The sacramentum was the sacred military oath of loyalty in the Roman legions. It was
sometimes administered annually.

SACRVM CVBICVLVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37

SAGVM
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 295
Military cloak

SCALPTORES
ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX
p. XXXV
Die cutters or celators in the Late Roman mint

SCHOLAE
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 433
Armed palace guard

SCHOLAE PALATINAE
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
Imperial bodyguard commanded by magister officiorvm

SCHOLAE PALATINAE
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 37
Imperial palace bodyguard whose function was very much like the old Praetorian Guard
under the Principate
SCRINIA
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
Imperial secretarial bureaus
SCVTVM
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 298
Regular legionary shield
SCVTVM
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
The scutum was a long, curved rectangular or oval shaped shield supposedly introduced
by Camillus.

SCVTVM
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 15
The scutum was an oval shield made of wood covered with hides and strengthened with
an iron rim and central boss.

SCVTVM, shield
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 23
Picture of scutum in plate is illustrated in this book.

SELIQVA or SILIQVA
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 42
Silver coin issued from time of Constantivs ll until Byzantine times

SENATVS CONSVLTA
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 38
latin phrase meaning By consent of the Senate

SIGNIFER
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text, roughly equivalent rank to sergeant

SIGNIFERI
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
Standard-bearers ranking below the AQUILIFERI

SILENTVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 39
Meetings of sacrvm consistorvm

SILENTVM ET CONVENTVS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 39
Meetings of sacrvm consistorvm and senate

SOCII
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 13
Allies of Rome during the Republic

SOLIDVS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 42
Gold coin, i/72 of a Roman pound (4.48g) that kept its weight and stability for several
centuries until late Byzantine times. It was called a Bezant by medieval Europeans and was copied in many nations because it was currency whose value could be trusted.

SPATHA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 298
Long sword

SPECTABILES
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 39
Late Roman high social order above illustres

SPECVLATORES AVGVSTI
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Elite imperial cavalry bodyguard

SVPPOSITORES
ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX
p. XXXV
The suppoaitores were workers who held the flan for striking in the Roman mint.

Synkletos
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 38
Greek word for Senate

TESSERARIVS
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 9
Praetorian Guardsman in charge of passing on the watchword

TESSERARIVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text, roughly equivalent rank to sergeant

TRECENARIVS
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Senior centurion who is immediate subordinate to the tribune in charge of a Praetorian
cohort

TRIARII
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10
Older Roman Republican troops past their prime. They were the third line of troops,
behind HASTATI and PRINCIPES
Tribal capitals (Britain)
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 22

List of tribal centers in Britain
Tribune
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 68ff
The office of Tribune is discussed in the chapter

TRIBVNE (Military)
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p.p. 13, 18
High - ranking legionary officer. There were six tribunes to a legion. They were later
replaced bt the LEGATI

TRIBVNVS ANGUSTICLAVII
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 70
Military tribune of equestrian rank

TRIBVNVS LATICLAVIVS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 70
Military tribune of senatorial rank
 
TRIBVTVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 46
Land tax based on the old tribute exacted from a conquered territory

TRIBVTVM CIVIVM ROMANORVM
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 126
Roman war tax on property

TVRNAE
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Praetorian cavalry units of thirty men

VEII, siege of
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
Ancient Etruscan city that vied with Rome for controlling the trade routes up the Tiber

VEII, siege of
Tim Cornell Atlas of the Roman World Facts on File Publications
p. 29
The Etruscan city of Veii controlled the right bank of the Tiber and was one of Rome's
most bitter rivals during the fifth Century B. C. The Roman hero, M. Furius Camillus, was
credited with destroying Veii in a war lasting ten years, 405 to 396 B. C.

VEXILLARII
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 14
Standard bearers

VEXILLARIVS EQVITVM
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Cavalry flag bearer

VICARIVS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 27
The vicarius was the Roman governor of a diocese.

VICARIVS VRBIS ROMAE
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 27
Vicarius in charge of diocese or all Italy south of Umbria and Tuscany, incl Sicily

VIGILES
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 28
City police

VITIS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
Vinewood staff carried by a centurion


 
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