Glossary of Terms A to L


A LIBELLIS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 74
Minister of notes, freedman advisor to the emperor

A RATIONABIS
Grant, Michael The Twelve Caesars
p. 143
Finance Minister. Grant discusses these secretaries on pp. 141 - 144 0f The Twelve
Caesars

A STVDIIS
Grant, Michael The Twelve Caesars
p. 143
The a studiis was an imperial secretary who served as librarian and cultural advisor to the emperor. He was also supposed to be responsible for commendations and promotions of men whom the emperor deemed worthy.

AB EPISTALIS
Grant, Michael The Twelve Caesars
p. 142
Minister of letters. Grant discusses these secretaries on pp. 141 - 144 0f The Twelve
Caesars

ADIECTIO STERILIVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 41
System where state owned land is assigned to private individuals for cultivation in order
to generate taxes (late Roman govt.)

AENEATORES
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
Trumpeters

AGENTES IN REBVS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
Roman domestic secret agents who spied on government officials

AGENTES IN REBVS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 30
Government domestic secret service agent who spied on government officials

AGER PVBLICVS
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 21
Ager publicus was public land that was distributed amongst retiring veterans. Most of it
was held by the large senatorial landowners, leading to the reforms of the Gracci. The
land was usually territory captured from an enemy.

AMMIANVS MARCELLINVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 60
Roman historian c. A. D. 330 - 400 who wrote about events in the late 3rd and 4th
Centuries up till the defeat and death of Valens at Adrianople.

ANNONA
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
The annona was the most important provincial tax, payable in kind (agricultural produce).

ANNONA
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 40
A tax, payable in kind, levied on rural populace

ANNONA
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 46
Agricultural tax that was the main source of revenue in the late empire. It was usually
collected in kind rather than in coin.

AQUILIFER
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
Eagle-bearer

AQVILIFER
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text

ARMILLAE
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
Bangles worn at the wrists awarded for bravery in battle

Army Pay
CORNELL & MATTHEWS, ATLAS OF THE ROMAN WORLD, FACTS ON FILE PUB.
p. 71
Julius Caesar raises legionary pay from 120 to 225 denarii per year in 46 B.C. (480 to 900
sestertii)

Army Pay
GREENE, KEVIN, THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE ROMAN ECONOMY, U. C. PRESS
59
Domitian raises pay from 900 to 1200 sestertii per year; Sept. Severus raises pay to 1800
to 2000 sestertii per year.

Army Pay
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
According to Parker, Camillus was first Roman general to pay the troops.

Army training manual
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 72
Describes proper use of gladius (GLADIVS), the military pace, etc.

Arrian
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 60
Arrian wrote down records of Roman military campaigns in Britain

AVRI LVSTRALIS COLLATIO
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 41
Tax on commerce and industry dating from time of Conatantine

AVXILIA
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 63
Auxiliary units in the Roman Army

BALLISTAE
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 63
Roman military siege engine which fired heavy bolts, or short, thick arrows.

BARRITUS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 38
Ancient German battle cry

BENEFICIARVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text

BVCELARII
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 43
Private retainers. The word comes from bucella, or military biscuit. The bucelarii were the private army of many late Roman noblemen. Galla Placidia was known to use them in her personal guard.

Byzantine civil administration
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 32
Discussed in text passage

Byzantine civil service
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 32
Discussed in text passage

Byzantine economic power
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 32
Discussed in text passage

CALIGAE
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
military boots

CAMILLVS
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
Cammilus was an early Roman hero of the Republic who saved Rome from complete
conquest by the Gauls, fought at the River Allia.

CANDIDATI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 37
special imperial guards associated with the scholae. They never left the emperor and
were loyal only to him as opposed to the state in general.

CAPITIO IVGATIO
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 40
combination of head and land tax started under Diocletianvs

CAPITVLA
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 433
units of farmland responsible for furnishing a certain amount of army recruits

CAPVT
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 40
an individual person associated with the ivgivm (the farmer or laboirer)

CAPVT
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 47
head, term was used in specifying a unit of the agricultural tax. One caput could make a
living from one ivgvm of land.

CASSIS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
One type of Roman helmet

CASTRENSIS
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 433
official responsible for organization of Imperial household employees

CATAPVLTAE
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 63
Roman military siege engine capable of throwing large, heavy projectiles over the walls of an enemy town

CENSIBVS ADSCRIPTI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 48
These were essentially public tax rolls listing assets of the large estate owners.

Centurion
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 62
Roman non-commissioned officer in charge of a century (unit of 80 men)

CENTVRIO SPECVLATORVM
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Centurion in charge of the speculatores

CENTVRION
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 73 ff. The centurion was an officer in command of a century of 80 troops. Their responsibilities varied widely, as did their pay

CENTVRION
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text. Junior Centurions were more like lieutenants, primus pilus was more
like a full colonel. Some were commissioned directly and some rose through the ranks

CENTVRION
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 14
The centurion was an officer in command of a century.

CETRA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 298
small round shield

CINGVLA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 298
waistbelts

City prefects
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 36

CLARISSIMI
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 39
(late Roman high social order above spectabiles

CLIPEI
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10
Plural of CLIPEUS. According to Parker, a clipeus was a small round shield. Other sources describe them as large oval shields.

CLIPEUS
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 11
Small round shield

CLIPEVS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
long, oval-shaped shield

Co - emperors
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 34
Often during the late empire, two emperors would share the ruling of the Roman Empire
and divide the territory to be governed beteen them. Thus, they were co-emperors.

COLLEGIA
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
trade corporations or guilds

COLONI
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 40
During the late Roman Empire, Diocletian issued an edict which stated that a man may not leave his profession. In addition. sons must follow their fathers in their profession. This effectively tied the small Roman peasant farmer to the land. This is seen by many historians as the beginning of medieval serfdom.

COLONI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 48
Poor tenamt farmers. They were free, but were virtually serfs, being bound to the soil by
the laws associated with Diocletian's financial reforms.

COLONIA
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 21
Settlement for Roman legionary veterans who were given small plots of land to farm
outside the walls after retirement

COMES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 418
Roman count, from the Latin word for companion. the comes ranked above the DVX, or Roman duke. The Comes usually had military and civil jurisdiction over a large territory covering a province or several provinces, or was a high - ranking official in the emperor's consistory or cabinet.

COMES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p.
Roman count, an officer in charge of several DVCES

COMES AVRI
ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX
p. XXXV
special officer in charge of the provision of gold. his signature, COMOB, was placed in the exergue of gold coins from Gratian on

COMES ORIENTIS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 27
diocesan govenor of Oriens

COMES RERVM PRIVATARVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
(official in charge of privy purse)

COMES SACRARVM LARGITIONVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
(official in charge of national budget)

COMES SACRARVM LARGITIONVM
ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX
p. XXXV
chief treasury official

COMITATENSES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
Roman mobile field army

COMITATENSES
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 35
mobile troops

COMITATVS
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
escort. This word forms the root of the word comitatensis

COMITATVS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 35
sacred retinue

Consul
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 68ff
Discussed in chapter

CONTVS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 298
special heavy spear carried by nvmeri

CORNICVLARIVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text, officer in charge of headquarters staff

CORONA CIVICA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
civic crown, a very high decoration awarded for rescuing a Roman citizen from danger in
the face of the enemy

CVRA PALATII
Bury, V.I
p.223
Steward of the Palace. Evidently a Roman Civil Service office mentioned in reference to
the usurper Johannes, who held this office shortly before his usurpation.

CVRATOR THESAVRI SACRI IN ARCA AVRI
ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX
p. XXXV
officer who certified purity of gold

CVRIOSI
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37

CVRSVS PVBLICVS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
Imperial postal system

CVRSVS PVBLICVS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 30
Imperial state postal system

DE RE MILITARI
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 60
Manual of military tactics written by Vegetius (VEGETIVS) A. D. 383 - 450

demes
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 30
Political cliques or parties in the late Roman Empire. The demes played rough politics
and were somewhat like gangs or the modern Mafia. They had their colors and were
associated with chariot racing teams in an age where sports and politics were more

DILECTVS
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 17
The dilectus was a levy of troops during Republican times (e. g. Second Punic War. 212 B. C. a dilectus was used to raise troops.

diocese
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 35
a late Roman administrative unit of territory smaller than a prefecture

DIOCESE
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 412
administrative unit smaller than province originated under Diocletian

Diplomas
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 61
Diplomas were awarded to legionary veterans upon retirement when they had completed
their service.

DOMESTICI
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p.
imperial bodyguard troops

DUX
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 35
Roman duke

DVX, DVCES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p.
Roman army officer in charge of a military district corresponding to a border province

ENSIS
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
297
long sword

Eparch of constantinople
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 36

EPHIPPIVM
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
saddle cloth or blanket

EPISTULARVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
a class of imperial secretary

EQVITES
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Men could become equites, or Roman knights after five years' service in the Praetorian
Guard. At that time, they became cavalry troops.

EQVITES
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10
Mounted infantry (Original meaning of the word) Equite later came to mean a Roman
knight or person of the propertied class but not of one of the old established senatorial
families.

EVOCATI
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 24
Discharged veterans

EXERCITATOR
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 8
Cavalry riding instructor for the speculatores

EXERCITVS COMITATENSIS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 42
a strong military mobile strike force created by Diocletianvs to supplement the frontier
forces

FISCVS
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 37
(national budget)

FOEDERATI
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
allied troops recruited from tribes beyond the Roman borders

FOEDERATI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 42
allies

FOEDVS
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 42
treaty of alliance

FRENA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
harness

FRVMENTARII, AGENTES IN REBVS
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 412
secret service agents, Imperial civil spies

G. PETRONIVS TVRPILLIANVS
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 147
Governor sent by Nero to Britain A. D. 61 - 63

GENTILES
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 40
foreigners

GLADIVS
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 15
The Gladius was a two - edged Spanish sword carried by Roman legionaries on the right
side.

GLORIOSI
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 39
(late Roman high social order above clarissimi

Gold economy
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 41

GROMA
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 26
Roman engineer's surveying instrument

HASTA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 297
spear

HASTA
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10
Roman thrusting spear, dates from the Republic, used for thrusting as opposed to the
PILVM, which is used for throwing.

HASTA VELITARIS
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 15
Thrusting spear with a wooden haft 3ft. long and an iron head 9 inches in length used by
velites.

HASTATI
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 10
Roman spearmen that used the HASTA

HONESTA MISSIO
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 31
honorable dismissal from service

ILLVSTRES
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 39
The illustres were a late Roman high social order. See gloriosi, spectabiles

IMAGINIFERI
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 296
Standard-bearers ranking below the AQUILIFERI (eagle bearers) The imaginifer was responsible for carrying the portrait of the emperor into battle.

Immunes
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p.
Described in text

IMMVNIS
Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series
p. 9
A soldier who has attained the status of immunis is not required to perform ordinary
fatigues.

IMPERIVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 28
Inperial authority or right to rule

IMPERIVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 31
Latin word meaning imperial authority

IMPERIVM ROMANVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 27
Term meaning Roman Empire

ITINERARVIM ANTONII
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 26
The Antonine Itinerary measures out the distances between cities in Roman Britain,
measured in Roman miles (1000 double paces)

IVGIVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 40
a unit of agricultural land based on productivity created for taxation purposes

IVGVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 47
a unit of land for taxation purposes based not on actual area but on agricultural
productivity.

IVLIVS FRONTINVS
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 44
Julius Frontinus was the Roman governor of Britain before A. D. 78

Josephus
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 60
Josephus wrote on military campaigns in Britain, Judea, and elsewhere during
Vespasian's time.

Jugurtha
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 20
A Numidian chieftain who fought Rome in about 110 B. C.

IVLIVS AGRICOLA
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 18
Julius Agricola was sent to Britain as governor in A. D. 78

LAETI, DEDITICII, GENTILES
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
conquered peoples settled within the empire

LATIFVNDIVM
Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State
p. 29
Large estates belonging to powerful landowners

LEG II AVGVSTA
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 40
The Second Augusta Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain

LEG IX HISPANA
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 40
The Ninth Hispania Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain. It disappeared from
the records early in the Second Century.

LEG XIV GEMINA
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 40
The Fourteenth Gemina Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain

LEG XX VALERIA VICTRIX
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 40
The Twentieth Valeria Victrix Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain

LEGION
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p. 17
The Roman legion was about 5200 - 6000 men during the time of the Macedonian Wars,
according to Titus Livy.

Legionary Fort
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 40
Entire chapter discusses CASTRA, legions, army organization, PRINCIPIA, VALLVM, wall,
PILVM, GLADIVS

LEGITIMA STIPENDIA
H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions
p.p. 20, 25
A man could not be made to serve in the pre-Marian republican armies for more than
twenty stipendia, or campaigns.

LIBELLORVM
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 29
a class of imperial secretary

LIMITANEI
SINNIGEN, W. G. & BOAK, A. E. B. A HISTORY OF ROME, 6th ED.
p. 434
border troops

LIMITANEI
BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.
p. 35
frontier troops

LONDINIVM
Priestly Britain Under the Romans
p. 22
Roman name for London, largest town in Britain but neither a COLONIA nor a MVNICIPIVM.

LORICA
Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars
p. 295
cuirass

LORICA
Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion
p. 62
Roman legionary's cuirass or upper body armor


 
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