Glossary

Term

Reference Book

Page

Definition

AGENTES IN REBVS

Bury, J. B. History of the Later Roman Empire v.1

30

Government secret service Agent who spied on Roman and Byzantine government officials

A LIBELLIS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

74

Minister of notes, freedman advisor to the emperor

ANNONA

Bury, J. B. History of the Later Roman Empire v.1

Agricultural tax that was the main source of revenue for the late Roman government. It was usually collected in kind (agricultural products) than in money.

A RATIONABIS

Grant, Michael The Twelve Caesars

143

Finance Minister. Grant discusses these secretaries on pp. 141 - 144 0f The Twelve Caesars

A STVDIIS

Grant, Michael The Twelve Caesars

143

The A Studiis was an imperial secretary who served as librarian and cultural advisor to the emperor. He was also supposed to be responsible for commendations and promotions of men whom the emperor deemed worthy.

AB EPISTALIS

Grant, Michael The Twelve Caesars

142

Minister of letters. Grant discusses these secretaries on pp. 141 - 144 0f The Twelve Caesars

ADIECTIO STERILIVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

41

A system where state owned land is assigned to private individuals for cultivation in order to generate taxes (late Roman govt.)

AENEATORES

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

trumpeters

AGASO, STRATOR

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

batman

AGENTES IN REBVS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

AGER PVBLICVS

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

21

Ager publicus was public land that was distributed amongst retiring veterans. Most of it was held by the large senatorial landowners, leading to the reforms of the Gracci. The land was usually territory captured from an enemy.

AMMIANVS MARCELLINVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

60

Roman historian c. A. D. 330 - 400 who wrote about events in the late 3rd and 4th Centuries up till the defeat and death of Valens at Adrianople.

ANNONA

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

The Most important provincial tax

ANNONA

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

40

A tax, payable in kind, levied on rural populace

AQUILIFER

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

Eagle-bearer

AQVILIFER

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Bearer of the legionary eagles. He is described in the text

ARMILLAE

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

Bangles worn at the wrists awarded for bravery in battle

Army Pay

CORNELL & MATTHEWS, ATLAS OF THE ROMAN WORLD, FACTS ON FILE PUB.

71

Julius Caesar raises legionary pay from 120 to 225 denarii per year in 46 B.C. (480 to 900 sestertii)

Army Pay

GREENE, KEVIN, THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE ROMAN ECONOMY, U. C. PRESS

59

Domitian raises pay from 900 to 1200 sestertii per year; Sept. Severus raises pay to 1800 to 2000 sestertii per year.

army pay

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

11

According to Parker, Camillus was first Roman general to pay the troops.

Army training manual

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

72

Describes proper use of gladius (GLADIVS), the military pace, etc.

Arrian

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

60

Wrote records of campaigns in Britain

AVRI LVSTRALIS COLLATIO

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

41

tax on commerce and industry dating from time of Conatantine

AVXILIA

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

63

Auxiliary units in the Roman Army

BALLISTAE

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

63

Roman military siege engine which fired heavy bolts, or short, thick arrows.

BENEFICIARVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text

CALIGAE

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

military boots

CAPITIO IVGATIO

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

40

combination of head and land tax started under Diocletianvs

CAPVT

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

40

an individual person associated with the ivgivm (the farmer or laborer)

CASSIS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

helmet

CATAPVLTAE

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

63

Roman military siege engine capable of throwing large, heavy projectiles over the walls of an enemy town

Centurion

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

62

Roman non-commissioned officer in charge of a century (unit of 80 men)

CENTVRIO SPECVLATORVM

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Centurion in charge of the speculatores

CENTVRION

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

73

ff. Officer in command of a century of 80 troops. Their responsibilities varied widely, as did their pay

CENTVRION

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text. Junior Centurions were more like lieutenants, primus pilus was more like a full colonel. Some were commissioned directly and some rose through the ranks

CENTVRION

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

14

The centurion was an officer in command of a century.

CETRA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

298

small round shield

CINGVLA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

298

waistbelts

city prefects

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

36

CLARISSIMI

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

39

(late Roman high social order above spectabiles

CLIPEVS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

long, oval-shaped shield

COLLEGIA

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

trade corporations or guilds

COLONI

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

40

late Roman peasants

COLONIA

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

21

Settlement for Roman legionary veterans who were given small plots of land to farm outside the walls after retirement

COMES AVRI

ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX

XXXV

special officer in charge of the provision of gold. his signature, COMOB, was placed in the exergue of gold coins from Gratian on

COMES RERVM PRIVATARVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(official in charge of privy purse)

COMES SACRARVM LARGITIONVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(official in charge of national budget)

COMES SACRARVM LARGITIONVM

ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX

XXXV

chief treasury official

Consul

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

68ff

Discussed in chapter

CONTVS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

298

special heavy spear carried by nvmeri

CORNICVLARIVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text, officer in charge of headquarters staff

CORONA CIVICA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

civic crown, a very high decoration awarded for rescuing a Roman citizen from danger in the face of the enemy

CVRATOR THESAVRI SACRI IN ARCA AVRI

ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX

XXXV

officer who certified purity of gold

CVRIOSI

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

CVRSVS PVBLICVS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(imperial postal system)

DE RE MILITARI

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

60

Manual of military tactics written by Vegetius (VEGETIVS) A. D. 383 - 450

DILECTVS

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

17

The dilectus was a levy of troops during Republican times (e. g. Secong Punic War. 212 B. C. a dilectus was used to raise troops.

Diplomas

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

61

Diplomas were awarded to legionary veterans upon retirement when they had completed their service.

DUX

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

35

(duke)

ENSIS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

long sword

eparch of constantinople

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

36

EPHIPPIVM

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

saddle cloth or blanket

EPISTULARVM

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

a class of imperial secretary

EQVITES

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Men could become equites, or Roman knights after five years' service in the Praetorian Guard. At that time, they became cavalry troops.

EVOCATI

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

24

Discharged veterans

EXERCITATOR

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Cavalry riding instructor for the speculatores

EXERCITVS COMITATENSIS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

42

a strong military mobile strike force created by Diocletianvs to supplement the frontier forces

FISCVS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(national budget)

FRENA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

Harness

GALEA

Helmet

G. PETRONIVS TVRPILLIANVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

147

Governor sent by Nero to Britain A. D. 61 - 63

GLADIVS

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

15

The Gladius was a two - edged Spanish sword carried by Roman legionaries on the right side.

GLORIOSI

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

39

(late Roman high social order above clarissimi

gold economy

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

41

GROMA

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

26

Roman engineer's surveying instrument

HASTA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

spear

HASTA VELITARIS

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

15

Thrusting spear with a wooden haft 3ft. long and an iron head 9 inches in length used by velites.

HONESTA MISSIO

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

31

honorable dismissal from service

ILLVSTRES

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

39

(late Roman high social order)

IMAGINIFERI

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

standard-bearers ranking below the AQUILIFERI

Immunes

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text

IMMVNIS

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

9

A soldier who has attained the status of immunis is not required to perform ordinary fatigues.

ITINERARVIM ANTONII

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

26

The Antonine Itinerary measures out the distances between cities in Roman Britain, measured in Roman miles (1000 double paces)

IVGIVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

40

a unit of agricultural land based on productivity created for taxation purposes

IVLIVS FRONTINVS

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

44

Julius Frontinus was the Roman governor of Britain before A. D. 78

JOSEPHVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

60

Josephus wrote on military campaigns in Britain, Judea, and elsewhere during Vespasian's time.

Jugurtha

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

20

A Numidian chieftain who fought Rome in about 110 B. C.

JVLIVS AGRICOLA

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

18

Julius Agricola was sent to Britain as governor in A. D. 78

LATIFVNDIVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

29

(great estate)

LEG II AVGVSTA

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

40

The Second Augusta Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain

LEG IX HISPANA

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

40

The Ninth Hispania Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain. It disappeared from the records early in the Second Century.

LEG XIV GEMINA

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

40

The Fourteenth Gemina Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain

LEG XX VALERIA VICTRIX

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

40

The Twentieth Valeria Victrix Legion was sent by Claudius to conquer Britain

LEGION

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

17

The Roman legion was about 5200 - 6000 men during the time of the Macedonian Wars, according to Titus Livy.

Legionary Fort

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

40

Entire chapter discusses CASTRA, legions, army organization, PRINCIPIA, VALLVM, wall, PILVM, GLADIVS

LEGITIMA STIPENDIA

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

20, 25

A man could not be made to serve in the pre-Marian republican armies for more than twenty stipendia, or campaigns.

LIBELLORVM

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

a class of imperial secretary

LONDINIVM

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

22

Roman name for London, largest town in Britain but neither a COLONIA nor a MVNICIPIVM.

LORICA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

295

cuirass

LORICA

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

62

Roman legionary's cuirass or upper body armor

MAGISTER EQVITVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

43

master of horse

MAGISTER EQVITVM ET PEDITVM PRAESENTALIS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

43

Master of soldiers and horse who remained close to the emperor

MAGISTER MILITVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

43

master of soldiers, master-general

MAGISTER MILITVM PER ORIENTALIS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

43

Master general of the Roman Orient

MAGISTER OFFICIORVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(master of offices) also master of ceremonies

MAGISTER OFFICIORVM

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

master of offices

MAGISTER PEDITVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

43

master of infantry

MANIPLE

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

11

The maniple was a small company of Roman troops consisting of 60 men at first but it was later made up of two centuries, or 120 to 160 men.

MEMORIAE

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

a class of imperial secretary

MILES

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

9

Ordinary soldier

MILES GREGARIVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

77

Described in text

Military hospital

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

63

A military hospital at an army camp at Carnuntum (CARNVNTVM) is described

MILITIA EQVESTRIS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

70

Three officer posts in the army which comprise the beginning of an equestrian officer's career (Augustus)

mutiny

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

75

Tacitus, writing about the mutinous climate in some of the legions at the time of Tiberius' accession, puts words into the mouths of some soldiers "Why do we go on obeying a handful of centurions ... body and soul bought for ten coppers a day ..."

MVNICIPIVM

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

21

Roman provincial town with rights to govern itself and citizenship granted to all free residents (VERVLAMIVM, St. Albans, was only example in Roman Britain.

NVMERI

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

297

irregular cavalry units

NVMERI

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

298

irregular cavalry units

OFFICIA

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

OFFICIALES

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

civil servants

OFFICINAE

ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX

XXXV

workshops (ex. in the mints)

OFFICIVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

OFFICIVM

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

the body of civil servants that constituted the staff of a minister or governor

OPTIO

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

9

A centurion's deputy

OPTIO

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text, roughly equivalent rank to sergeant

OPTIO

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

14

Junior officer under the centurion

OPTIO EQVITVM

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Officers in charge of turnae

PALATINI

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

43

crack units of the comitatensis who replaced the praetorian guard. They were contolled by the magister officiorvm

PARMA

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

15

Small, round buckler

PARMAE

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

small. round shields

PETILLIVS CERIALVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

69

Commander of ninth legion (LEG IX) which was mauled by Boudicca (Boadicea)

PHALERAE

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

295

orders or medals

PILVM

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

11

Camillus supposedly introduced the pilum, a short, well - balanced throwing spear

PILVM

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

15

The pilum was a Roman throwing spear with 4 1/2 foot haft and an iron head of about the same length. The iron shank of the head was driven up into the haft about 1/2 its length.

PRAEFECTI

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

23

Magistrate or officer in command of allied units (SOCII)

PRAEFECTVS CASTRORVM

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

69

Camp Commandant

PRAEFECTVS VIGILVM

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

officer in charge of city police

PRAEPOSITVS SACRI CVBICVLII

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(grand chamberlain)

PRAETOR

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

68ff

Discussed in chapter

praetorian prefecture

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

36

retained both civil & military authority under Diocletian

PRIMVS PILVS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

73

The primus pilus was the head centurion, sometimes in command of a cohort

PRINCEPS

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

31

a civil service head of staff (as opposed to an imperial title)

PRINCIPALIS

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

9

A Praetorian Guardsman with several years' service who draws double pay

PROBATVS

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

9

Probationary Praetorian Guardsman candidate

Proconsul

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

68ff

Discussed in chapter

Procurator

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

68ff

Discussed in chapter

QUAESTOR

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

68ff

Discussed in chapter

QVAESTOR SACRI PALATII

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

RES PRIVATAE

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(imperial privy purse)

Roman Army Organization, 350 B. C.

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

13 - 14

Each legion has 4200 - 6000 men, 10 maniples each of HASTATI, PRINCIPES, & TRIARII plus lightly armed VELITES. Each MANIPLE has 120 - 160 troops or 2 CENTURIES. 2 CENTURIONS & 2 OPTIONES per century,

Roman Dagger

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

23

Picture

SACRA VESTIS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(imperial camera)

SACRAMENTVM

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

25

The sacramentum was the sacred military oath of loyalty in the Roman legions. It was sometimes administered annually.

SACRVM CVBICVLVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

SAGVM

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

295

cloak

SCALPTORES

ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX

XXXV

die cutter or celator in the LateRoman mint

SCHOLAE PALATINAE

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

37

(imperial bodyguard) commanded by magister officiorvm

SCRINIA

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

29

secretarial bureaux

SCVTVM

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

298

regular legionary shield

SCVTVM

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

11

The scutum was a long, curved rectangular or oval shaped shield supposedly introduced by Camillus.

SCVTVM

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

15

The scutum was an oval shield made of wood covered with hides and strengthened with an iron rim and central boss.

SCVTVM, shield

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

23

Picture

SELIQVA, SILIQVA

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

42

silver coin from time of Constantivs ll on

SENATVS CONSVLTA

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

38

SIGNIFER

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text, roughly equivalent rank to sergeant

SIGNIFERI

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

standard-bearers ranking below the AQUILIFERI

SILENTVM

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

39

meetings of sacrvm consistorvm

SILENTVM ET CONVENTVS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

39

meetings of sacrvm consistorvm and senate

SOCII

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

13

Allies of Rome during the Republic

SOLIDVS

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

42

gold coin, i/72 of a Roman pound (4.48g) that kept its weight and stability for several centuries

SPATHA

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

298

long sword

SPECTABILES

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

39

(late Roman high social order above illustres)

SPECVLATORES AVGVSTI

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Elite imperial cavalry bodyguard

SVPPOSITORES

ROMAN OMPERIAL COINAGE VOL IX

XXXV

worker who holds the flan for striking in the Roman mint

synkletos

Ostrogorsky, George History of the Byzantine State

38

(senate) Greek

TESSERARIVS

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

9

Praetorian Guardsman in charge of passing on the watchword

TESSERARIVS

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

Described in text, roughly equivalent rank to sergeant

TRECENARIVS

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Senior centurion who is immediate subordinate to the tribune in charge of a Praetorian cohort

Tribal capitals (Britain)

Priestly Britain Under the Romans

22

List of tribal centers in Britain

Tribune

Leonard Cottrell, The Great Invasion

68ff

Discussed in chapter

TRIBVNE (Military)

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

13, 18

High - ranking legionary officer. There were six tribunes to a legion. They were later replaced bt the LEGATI

TRIBVNVS ANGUSTICLAVII

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

70

Military tribune of equestrian rank

TRIBVNVS LATICLAVIVS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

70

Military tribune of senatorial rank

TVRNAE

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Praetorian cavalry units of thirty men

VEII, siege of

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

11

Ancient Etruscan city that vied with Rome for controlling the trade routes up the Tiber

VEII, siege of

Tim Cornell Atlas of the Roman World Facts on File Publications

29

The Etruscan city of Veii controlled the right bank of the Tiber and was one of Rome's most bitter rivals during the fifth Century B. C. The Roman hero, M. Furius Camillus, was credited with destroying Veii in a war lasting ten years, 405 to 396 B. C.

VEXILLARII

H. M. D. Parker The Roman Legions

14

Standard bearers

VEXILLARIVS EQVITVM

Rankow and Hook The Praetorian Guard Osprey Military Elite Series

8

Cavalry flag bearer

VICARIVS

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

27

diocesan govenor

VIGILES

BURY, J. B. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE VOL 1.

28

city police

VITIS

Grant, Michael Army of the Caesars

296

vinewood staff carried by a centurion

 

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